The Durability Of Silk Velvet For Upholstery

The durability depends on quite a few things: the tightness of the weave; thickness/strength of the yarn & fabric; back-cloth composition and strength; and so on.

Essentially you need to look at the Martindale or Rub Test result for the specific fabric in question. Two silk velvets can be quite different.

As with all velvets a proper cleaning regime is important to extend the life of the fabric.

One of KOTHEA’s silk velvets has a rub test/Martindale of 25,000. This is more than adequate for general upholstery.

Dye Lot Variation in Fabrics

Fabrics are often woven in lengths of 50m, 100m or more. Manufacturers and distributors then hold these lengths and at some point a designer buys a smaller cut-length. If subsequently the fabric is damaged when being made up or if the end-client has requirements for additional fabric, then more is ordered. So far so good? But exactly which roll is the additional fabric going to be cut from?

It is important to realise that there can be variation in the dyes used. Normally manufacturers keep a record of the exact dye(s) used in the manufacturing process(es). This is a dye lot. The dye could have been added to make a coloured yarn early in the process or it could have been added to the fibre later if it is a printed fabric.

So when more fabric is ordered for the same client it is important to ensure the same dye lot was used as for the original order.

Variations do occur in almost all fabrics. So if the same dye lot cannot be re-ordered it is prudent for the designer to order a sample for matching. It is wise for designers, upholsterers, curtain- and cushion-makers to always request a sample to avoid costly mistakes.

Typically man-made/synthetic dyes are more easily chemically replicated and so are inherently less prone to dye lot variation. For natural products there is a much greater chance of variation. But again there is no hard and fast rule.

Colour also plays a part as some farbic colours are more prone to change because of the chemical structure of the dye and/or the fabric being used.

What if all the stock has been used and there is a variation? Do we have to start again?

Hopefully not and common sense has to prevail from time to time. For example, a dye lot variation can be negated by conditions in the final installation. So in the case where there are fabrics from different dye lots with one dye lot only used in each room only rarely will the be any noticeable difference from room to room. Even in the case where, say, curtains on different walls are made from different but similar dye lots then any dye lot variation can be made unnoticeable by the effect of varying amounts of sunlight through windows. Although bear in mind there are variations in the strength and type of light throughout the day and between sunlight and artificial light at night. Similarly in low light (cellar) conditions dye lot variation will be much less noticeable.

Finally bear in mind the age of the fabric/curtains and the degree to which they have been exposed to sunlight. Some fabrics naturally fade over time, depending on their colour fastness. In this case it is unlikely ever to be able to get a perfect match.

KOTWIG – New Farbic From KOTHEA

KOTHEA Release New Fabric For Interiors

LONDON, England. 04-MAY-2009 11.30 AM: KOTHEA today announced it has expanded its product range by the addition of KOTWIG. KOTWIG has an off-the-wall textured design. It has a high Martindale score which is unusually achieved without incorporating polyester. It is highly suitable for a wide range of uses including heavy upholstery and wall treatments in either domestic or contract installations.

Flickr Image Of KOTWIG
Flickr Image Of KOTWIG

Full information can be found <here>.

KOTWIG

Reference: 14-002-436

Colour Shown: Brown – Light Brown

Other colourways: 20

Width: 145cm

Repeat: None

Composition: 43% Linen, 36% Viscose, 21% Cotton.

Martindale: 40,000 ‘rubs’

Primary Usage: General upholstery or wall treatments, contract & domestic.

Type of fabric: Textured Weave

About KOTHEA.

KOTHEA are a top-market fabric house based in London serving customers throughout all of Europe and The Middle East. Founded in 1999 they have since continued to develop and sell an extensive range of timeless fabrics to the top architects, interior- and yacht-designers for projects ranging from mega-yachts to boutique hotels and from luxury spas to penthouses.

KOTHEA operate on a trade-only basis and their fabrics are available to the public through interior designers and specialist interior design shops such as Gotham, Interiors Bis and Fiona Campbell. KOTHEA also supply beautiful hand-woven linen fabrics and finished goods – throws and table linen.

KOTHEA’s trade customers would perceive their signature fabrics to include several ranges of velvet including the exclusive ‘cashmere silk velvet’, silks, linens, double-width sheers, faux leather and interesting weaves for upholstery often with high Martindale ‘rub tests’ making them highly suited to both contract and residential projects.

Founder and Executive Director, Lisa Parsons started KOTHEA more than 10 years ago after 11 highly successful years with Nobilis Fontan in Chelsea and Donghia in Chelsea Harbour. She says, “At KOTHEA we like to think we bring something a little different to the market. Our difference will be reflected in our customers’ eyes by unusual fabrics that complement our core fabric ranges; all augmented by our excellent levels of customers service, market knowledge and attention to detail.”

PR April 2009

KOTHEA Release New Fabric For Interiors

LONDON, England. 06-APR-2009 11.30 AM: KOTHEA today announced it has expanded its product range by the addition of KOCOSMIC. KOCOSMIC is a little bit quirky; like a faux skin without trying too hard to mimic nature. It has high rubs and is suitable for a wide range of uses including heavy upholstery and wall treatments in either domestic or contract installations.

KOCOSMIC

Reference: 03-004-378
Colour Shown: 3 Silver
Other Colourways: 19
Width: 140cm
Repeat: None
Composition: 100% Cotton base cloth, 95% Vinyl 5%, Polyurethane outer.
Martindale: BS5690 100,000
Primary Usage: Heavy upholstery, wall treatments, contract & domestic.
Type of fabric: Vinyl
Other: Passes BS5852 Schedule 4 Part 1 Cigarette Test, Schedule 5 Part 1 Match Test and Crib 5.

About KOTHEA.

KOTHEA are a top-market fabric house based in London serving customers throughout all of Europe and The Middle East. Founded in 1999 they have since continued to develop and sell an extensive range of timeless fabrics to the top architects, interior- and yacht-designers for projects ranging from mega-yachts to boutique hotels and from luxury spas to penthouses.

KOTHEA operate on a trade-only basis and their fabrics are available to the public through interior designers and specialist interior design shops such as Gotham, Interiors Bis and Fiona Campbell. KOTHEA also supply beautiful hand-woven linen fabrics and finished goods – throws and table linen.

KOTHEA’s trade customers would perceive their signature fabrics to include several ranges of velvet including the exclusive ‘cashmere silk velvet’, silks, linens, double-width sheers, faux leather and interesting weaves for upholstery often with high Martindale ‘rub tests’ making them highly suited to both contract and residential projects.

Founder and Executive Director, Lisa Parsons started KOTHEA more than 10 years ago after 11 highly successful years with Nobilis Fontan in Chelsea and Donghia in Chelsea Harbour. She says, “At KOTHEA we like to think we bring something a little different to the market. Our difference will be reflected in our customers’ eyes by unusual fabrics that complement our core fabric ranges; all augmented by our excellent levels of customers service, market knowledge and attention to detail.”

# # #

For Further Information
Please visit the company web site at https://www.kothea.com

Trademarks
KOTHEA is a registered trade mark of KOTHEA Limited. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

 

KOTHEA PR

We have been lucky enough to be getting quite a lot of coverage of our new ranges for 2009. This year we decided to have a gradual month-by-month release of new designs rather than the usual Spring and Autumn collections…we’re not a clothes fashion company after all.

Have a look at some of our thoughts on the year ahead as shown in the excellent on-line design directory The House Directory. An excerpt from the MARCH 2009 edition is shown below.

For a sneak preview of some of our new fabrics we have a 2009 flickr feed.

Fabric Trends 2009 by KOTHEA in TheHouseDirectory.com










Welcome to The House Directory monthly newsletter, providing you with the latest events
and courses, trend forecasts, new sources, and answers to your interior
design problems.



Trends

‘Quintessential, classic themes remain strong: muted neutrals
and stripes are still popular. The flamboyant and acidic colours
of the 90s and early part of this century have faded. Clients
across all sectors of the interior design market are still
looking for style combined with practicality. The use of fabric
for wallcoverings is a notable trend, particularly in faux
animal skins and other textures, as also is the continued growth
of the use of striking fabrics in a variety of outdoor
locations. Sheers remain popular as an alternative or complement
to curtains.’






 

March 2009 :: KOTHEA Release New Interior Fabric

KOTHEA Release New Fabric For Interiors

LONDON, England. 02-MAR-2009 11.30 AM: KOTHEA today announced it has expanded its product range by the addition of KODEKOBA, a fabric suitable for domestic upholstery. KODEKOBA has an unusual weave and texture. The striking weave makes the fabric highly suited for high visibility areas.

KODEKOBA

Reference: 02-001-386
Colour Shown: Light Brown
Other colourways: 3
Width: 140cm
Repeat: None
Composition: 55% Cotton, 26% Viscose, 9% Polyester.
Martindale: 18,000 ‘rubs’
Primary Usage: Residential upholstery & Cushions.
Type of fabric: Textured Weave

About KOTHEA.

KOTHEA are a top-market fabric house based in London serving customers throughout all of Europe and The Middle East. Founded in 1999 they have since continued to develop and sell an extensive range of timeless fabrics to the top architects, interior- and yacht-designers for projects ranging from mega-yachts to boutique hotels and from luxury spas to penthouses.

KOTHEA operate on a trade-only basis and their fabrics are available to the public through interior designers and specialist interior design shops such as Gotham, Interiors Bis and Fiona Campbell. KOTHEA also supply beautiful hand-woven linen fabrics and finished goods – throws and table linen.

KOTHEA’s trade customers would perceive their signature fabrics to include several ranges of velvet including the exclusive ‘cashmere silk velvet’, silks, linens, double-width sheers, faux leather and interesting weaves for upholstery often with high Martindale ‘rub tests’ making them highly suited to both contract and residential projects.

Founder and Executive Director, Lisa Parsons started KOTHEA more than 10 years ago after 11 highly successful years with Nobilis Fontan in Chelsea and Donghia in Chelsea Harbour. She says, “At KOTHEA we like to think we bring something a little different to the market. Our difference will be reflected in our customers’ eyes by unusual fabrics that complement our core fabric ranges; all augmented by our excellent levels of customers service, market knowledge and attention to detail.”

# # #

For Further Information
Please visit the company web site at https://www.kothea.com

Trademarks
KOTHEA is a registered trade mark of KOTHEA Limited. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

UK & European Fire Treatment For Interior Fabrics

Without exception, no fabric company can self-certify the fire retardancy of their fabrics. That can only be undertaken by a UKAS Accredited Test Laboratory. The following is KOTHEA’s summary of Textiles FR’s document “The Flame Retardancy Of Textiles” and, for detailed advice on the exact current legislative requirements, the reader should consult Textiles FR on 01274 651230.

1. Domestic

a. Curtains – No treatment is required.
b. Upholstery – The fabric must be treated to reach the match test (BS5852: Part1: 1979: Source 1).
The designer must first check the fabric passes the cigarette test (BS5852: Part1: 1979: Source 0).

Note:
The cigarette test meets the equivalent European standard BS EN 1021-1.
The match test meets the equivalent European standard BS EN 1021-2.
Fabrics containing 75% mixed-natural or natural fibre content do not usually require treating as they normally pass ‘the cigarette test’. You must use a Schedule 3 interliner (fire retardant to CRiB 5) though.

2. Contract

a. Curtains – The fabric must be treated to BS5867: Part 2: Type B.
Some fabrics meet this standard naturally, most do not. Some fabrics cannot be treated for this standard.
b. Upholstery – The fabric must be treated to BS5852: 1990: Source 5 (CRiB 5).
This involves the fabric being back coated and most fabrics can be treated in this way.

Note:
BS7176 covers BS5852: 1990. And BS5852: 1990 covers BS5852: Part 1: 1979 and BS 5852: Part 2: 1982. So the info above in 2b is correct. This treatment meets European standards.

3. Other Uses
Headboards, bed covers, wall coverings, yachting and aviation may have differing requirements.

There is a broad equivalence of British and European standards. However, the standards for the USA are different from Europe.

Revised PR Description for KOCHENCAT

The following is a more wordy description of our new fabric KOCHENCAT. The original text is here. A more wordy version requested for Super Yacht Times:

KOTHEA introduces KOCHENCAT, a versatile and extravagant fabric delivering understated excellence for designers in the yacht, spa and boutique hotel markets.

An extensive colour palette covering 27 colours gives colour options for every interior. Gold, lime, charcoal, taupe and ivory complement all discerning schemes and the luxurious feel of a fabric mixed with chenille and cotton delights all the senses.

Combine beauty with practicality and you get KOCHENCAT. This versatile, textured weave is suitable for demanding environments; it has the superb durability demonstrated by high Martindale ‘rub’ characteristics and can be further treated to resist the demands of water and heat – as is always expected in the yacht and hospitality industries. It is equally at home as upholstery, as panelling or as curtain material.

Versatility, beauty, dependability: KOCHENCAT.

Synthetic Dyes and Their Development

If you’re reading this you’ve probably already read my very brief history of natural dyes. The rest of the following discussion is not quite so brief and does get quite technical in a chemical sense but I’ve tried to omit as much of that as possible to make the information accessible to normal readers like you and me.

Within the space of 50 years, mankind had changed almost totally from natural dyes to synthetic ones. Phase 1 of this change was the addition of Chromium. The subsequent, often parallel, phases are discussed below with a bias towards how they apply to fabrics.

The 8 subsequent developments of synthetic dyes from Chromium onwards are:
(1. Chromium)
2. Triphenylmethane dyes
3. Anthraquinone dyes
4. Xanthene and related dyes
5. Azo dyes
6. Reactive dyes
7. Phthalocyanine compounds
8. Quinacridone compounds
9. Fluorescent brighteners

Phase 2: Triphenylmethane dyes

In 1858 Verguin (France) discovers ‘fuchsine’ a rose coloured dye made from aniline and tin chloride. This was the first of a series of dyes later called Triphenylmethanes and this marked the second phase of the growth of the synthetic dye industry. Adding excess aniline made aniline blue. Soon other variations were discovered and the chemistry understood; and before 1900 several hundred colours had been documented.

One problem with these dyes was solubility. That was overcome by the addition of sulphuric acid.

Phase 3: Anthraquinone dyes

In the 1850s and 1860s, the understanding of how carbon is structured (tetravalency) led to scientists being able to plan how chemicals might react before doing the experiments. Alizarin and its derivatives (the anthraquinones) gave a huge number of dyes which constitute the second biggest grouping of dyes.

The addition of sulphur created a group of bright, fast dyes for wool. Indrathone blue, a brilliant blue vat dye, was discovered at the turn of the century and related compounds are still today used as pigments spanning colours from blue to yellow.

Phase 4: Xanthene related dyes

Fluorescein was discovered in 1871 but related discoveries were seldom used with fabrics until the late 1880s when some were used for silk. However, the dyes had poor lightfastness and usage was stopped – only to be re-used 70 years later when they were found to be particularly good on acrylic fibres. Better products have been found since and now only one chemical dye in this class is used commercially (Safranine T).

Phase 5: Azo dyes

These form more than half of the commercial dyes used today.

The key is the reaction of nitrous acid with arylamine and then with phenols and arylamines. This chemical reaction forms part of the production process of 50% of dyes in use today having been used since 1875, firstly for wool.

Methyl- related azo dyes were used extensively up until the 1970s but this has now stopped in many countries as they were carcinogenic.

The discovery of the azo dyes led to the development of a method called ingrain dyeing. Here the dye is ‘made’ within the fabric. Since the process was carried out at around freezing point, some dyes were called ice colours. In 1912 Naphtol was found to form a water-soluble compound with an affinity for cotton, a major step in the development of the ingrain dyes. Naphtol is able to form a great number of possible end colours although many of these are not adequately colourfast.

Other Azo dyes became the most important commercial colourants because of their wide colour range, good fastness properties, and tinctorial strength (colour density), which is twice that of the anthraquinones, the second most important group of dyes. Azo dyes are easily prepared from many readily available, inexpensive compounds and meet the demands of a wide range of end uses. Cost advantages tend to offset the fact that these are less brilliant and less lightfast than the anthraquinones.

Phase 6: Reactive dyes

Reactive dyes are very adaptable and can create a huge number of colours.

The first reactive dyes utilized monoazo for bright yellow and red shades. Adding aniline gave the azo dye used in the first Procion Red.

Dichlorotriazinyl dyes are now produced by more than 30 dye manufacturers since the early patents on these dyes have expired.

With the introduction of reactive dyes, cotton could finally be dyed in bright shades with azo dyes for yellows to reds, with anthraquinones for blues, and with copper phthalocyanines for bright turquoise colours.

Phase 7: Phthalocyanine compounds

Phthalocyanines, the most important chromium derivatives developed in the 20th century being introduced in 1934 and marketed as Monastral Fast Blue B and Monastral Fast Blue G.

Copper phthalocyanine is the most important and can be formed directly on cotton. Although not useful for PET and acrylics, some complexes are utilized with nylon. Chemical bleaching alters the shade to bluish-green and green.

Water-soluble versions were developed later by the introduction of sulphur-based chemicals also producing a direct dye for cotton (Chlorantine Fast Turquoise Blue Gll), the first commercial phthalocyanine dye.

Such colourants all display strong, bright blue to green shades with remarkable chemical stability. These compounds exhibit excellent lightfastness, and their properties are in striking contrast to those of natural pigments that are destroyed by intense light or heat and mild chemical reagents. The high stability, strength, and brightness of the phthalocyanines render them cost-effective, illustrated by the wide use of blue and green labels on many products.

Phase 8: Quinacridone compounds

A second group of pigments developed in the 20th century were the quinacridone compounds. Quinacridone itself was introduced in 1958. Its seven crystalline forms range in colour from yellowish-red to violet.

Phase 9: Fluorescent brighteners

Raw natural fibres, paper, and plastics tend to appear yellowish because of weak light absorption. Bleaching can reduce this but the bleach must be mild to avoid damaging the material. Alternatively, a bluing agent can mask the yellowish tint to make the material ‘appear’ whiter (hence the phrase a ‘bluey whiteness’), or the material can be treated with a fluorescent compound that weakly emits blue visible light. These compounds, also called “optical brighteners,” they are not dyes in the usual sense. The major industrial applications are as textile finishers, pulp and paper brighteners.

Well done for getting this far!